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3: I-Biography

Imininingwane ekhombisa ubuyena

IgamaUMuhammad
Igama LikababaU-Abdullah, indodana ka-Abdul-Muttalib (okhokho babuyela emuva baze bafike kuMprofethi u-Ishmael indodana yoMprofethi u-Abraham)
Isibongo (Clan)Wayevela emndenini wakwaBani-Hashim (uBani-Hashim wayevela kumaQuraysh, isizwe esasiphakeme kakhulu e-Arabia)
Usuku lokuzalwaNgo-570 CE (1) Cishe
Indawo yokuzalwaIdolobha laseMecca (Makkah) - I-Peninsula yase-Arabia (okwamanje ise-Saudi Arabia)
Usuku Lokufa6 Juni, 632 CE. (Cishe, wayeneminyaka engama-63 ubudala lapho edlula emhlabeni)
Ukufa & Indawo YokungcwabaIdolobha laseMadinah (cishe amakhilomitha angama-400 enyakatho yeMakkah)

Ubuntwana & Ubusha

Ukuzalwa - eneminyaka emibiliUMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wayengenabo abafowabo noma odadewabo. Uyise washona engakazalwa.
Unina wamkhipha eMakkah ukuba ayonceliswa umhlengikazi oncelisa izingane okuthiwa uHalima (lokhu kwakuyisiko lama-Arab)
Iminyaka ewu-2 - eneminyaka ewu 8Wahlala nomama wakhe u-Aaminah owaze washona ngonyaka wama-576 CE.
Iminyaka ewu-6 - eneminyaka ewu-8Wahlala nomkhulu wakhe u-Abdul-Muttalib waze wadlula emhlabeni.
Iminyaka ewu-8 - eneminyaka ewu-25Wayehlala nomalume wakhe (u-Abu-Talib), owayenezingane eziyi-10.

Ezemfundo

UMuhammad wayengafundile

Wayengakwazi ukufunda nokubhala. Akazange ahlale ngaphandle kwaseMakkah noma afune ulwazi lwangaphandle. AmaSulumane akholelwa ukuthi uMuhammad akazange abhale noma aqophe i- "Quran". Wayidlulisa (njengoMlayezo ka-Allah oya ebantwini) iletha nge-letha nangegama ngegama ngaphandle kokusho ingxenye yayo ngamazwi akhe.

Amazwi nezimfundiso zikaMuhammad azixutshwanga neQuran

Zaqoqwa ezincwadini ezibizwa ngokuthi “Hadith noma Sunnah of the Prophet”, okuyizimfundiso zakhe, indlela yokuphila kanye nencazelo yeNcwadi (The Quran). (2)

Ukusebenza Impilo

Ubuntwana - eminyakeni engamashumi amabili Wasebenza njengomalusi isikhashana (enakekela izimvu nezimbuzi zabanye abantu). Ngaphezu kwalokho, wasebenza ekuhwebeni nomalume wakhe u-Abu-Talib. Ngoko mlando oyiqiniso, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wayeneminyaka eyi-12 lapho yena, okokuqala ngqa, ejoyina umalume wakhe u-Abu-Talib ohambweni lokuhweba oluya eSyria.
Maphakathi namashumi amabili - iminyaka engama-40 ubudalaWayesebenza njengomthengisi noma ehwebela owesifazane ocebile igama lakhe linguKhadijah, owayenebhizinisi elijwayelekile lokuhweba (babevame ukuthenga izimpahla endaweni ethile bazidayise kwenye). 

Wayedume ngokuthembeka, ubuqotho nokwethembeka. Akubanga nje isikhathi eside ngaphambi kokuthi athole isicoco esithi “As-Sadiqul Ameen”, okusho ukuthi “oneqiniso futhi othembekile”.
Iminyaka engama-40-63 ubudalaNgenkathi eneminyaka engama-40 ubudala (unyaka ka-610 CE) uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wathola isambulo esingcwele futhi wanikela ngempilo yakhe ekudluliseleni uMlayezo kaNkulunkulu kubo bonke abantu. Wafundisa abantu ngobunye bukaNkulunkulu futhi wadlulisa incwadi kaNkulunkulu (i-Quran), eyayibiza abantu ukuba mabahlalisane ngoku zwana okuhle nangoku-thula.

Isimo sakho somshado

Ushade nomfazi oyedwa iminyaka engu-25

UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) washada noKhadijah, indodakazi kaKhuwaylid, owayevela emndenini ohloniphekile obizwa ngo-Asad.

Wayengowesifazane ohlonishwayo emphakathini wangakubo futhi wayengumfelokazi. UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wamsebenzela iminyaka emibili ngaphambi kokuba afune umshado naye esebenzisa umuntu wesithathu. Wamthola ethembekile kakhulu, futhi kwaku-sobala ukuthi ungumuntu oziphethe kahle.

Umshado ophumelelayo

Yize uKhadijah wayemdala ngeminyaka eyi-15 kunoMuhammad, bobabili babevela esigabeni esifanayo senhlalo emphakathini.

Umehluko weminyaka wawungesona isithiyo ekusungulweni komshado ophumelelayo, owathatha iminyaka engu-25 (3) waze wadlula uKhadijah ngonyaka ka-619 CE eneminyaka engu-65. UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) waphinde washada ngemva kokushona kukaKhadija. (Ngicela ubone Abesifazane kwi-Islam)

Indoda yomndeni kanye nobaba wezingane eziyisi-6

UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) noKhadijah baphila ngokuzwana nangokuthula; babenamadodakazi amane (uZaynab, Ruqayya, Um Kulthoum & Fatima) namadodana amabili (u-Al-Qasim, owashona eneminyaka emithathu no-Abdullah, owashona eneminyaka emine). UMuhammad wayejwayele ukuchitha isikhathi nomndeni wakhe, asize unkosikazi wakhe emsebenzini zasendlini, azithungele izingubo zakhe futhi anakekele nezingane zakhe.

Ezikhathini eziningana wamchaza njengowesifazane ongcono kakhulu wesikhathi sakhe ngokufanayo kuMariam (uMariya) unina ka-Isa (uJesu), owayengowesifazane ongcono kakhulu wesikhathi sakhe.

Amathuna e-Al-Ma'ala eMakkah, lapho uKhadijah angcwatshwa khona.
Isithombe sithathwe emathuneni ase-Baqee, aseduze ne-Prophet Muhammad Mosque e-Madinah. Abanye babangane bakaMuhammad, izihlobo, abafazi nabantwana
bangcwatshwa kula mathuna.

Umgomo Awufeza Eminyakeni engama-23

610 CE

Isambulo saphezulu saqala

UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wathola isambulo sokuqala esivela kuNkulunkulu futhi waqokwa njengoMthunywa kaNkulunkulu kubo bonke abantu. Kwaku- wumsebenzi odinga ukholo okuqinile, ukuzinikela, ukuzibophezela nokwethembeka.

610 - 612 CE

ukwakheka kwamaSulumane

UMuhammad umeme abangani bakhe, futhi wakhetha abantu ukuthi bakholelwe kuNkulunkulu oyedwa futhi bamukele I-Islam njengoMyalezo Wakhe wokugcina oya Ebantwini. Eminyakeni emithathu yokuqala ngemuva kwesiprofetho, abantu abangaba ngu-130 bamukela I-Islam futhi baba yisizinda esiqinile esakwazi ukusabalalisa i-Islam obala. La maSulumane ayinhloko ayeyinhlanganisela yabantu abacebile nabampofu.

613 - 615 CE

Isimemo sikaMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) somphakathi basinqaba

UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) nabalandeli bakhe baqala ukukhuluma nabantu ngokukhululeka nge-Islam. Yize uMuhammad wayaziwa njengendoda ethembekile abaholi baseMecca abamkholwanga. Bamchaza njengembongi, umlumbi nendoda ehlanyayo.

UMuhammad walinga futhi wasongela

Abaholi baseMeccan bazama ukunqanda uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) ekumemeleni abantu e-Islam ngokumlinga ngesinye isikhathi futhi bamsongela nangesinye isikhathi. 

Futhi, bazama ukuvimba abantu ukuthi bamlalele. Bakhombisa ukwanda kogxeka amaSulumane amasha. Bashushiswa futhi bahlukumeza amaSulumane ampofu nabuthaka.

UMuhammad wasekela abalandeli bakhe futhi wathumela abanye babo e-Abyssinia

UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wayesondelene kakhulu nabalandeli bakhe. Wayejwayele ukuhlangana nabo e-Al-Arqam House eyayifana nekolishi elincane. Wabafundisa izindinganiso nokuziphatha futhi wafaka imizwa yesibopho nokuzibophezela. UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wabona ukuhlupheka nosizi abanye babalandeli bakhe babenisineke futhi wabeluleka ukuba bafune isiphephelo e-Abyssinia, echaza njengezwe elinobuhle elibuswa yinkosi yobuKristu enobulungiswa, okungekho muntu owaphathwa ngendlela engenabulungiswa ngaphansi kwayo.

Amadoda amabili anethonya amukela i-Islam 

Amadoda amabili ayenamandla futhi ayehlonishwa aseMeccan amukela ubuSulumane, u-Omar Bin Al-Khattab noHamza Bin Abdul-Muttalib (umalume kaMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye). Lokho kwaba ushintsho olubalulekile kumaSulumane. UHamza waba ngumlandeli oqavile nomvikeli kaMuhammad waze washona (uHamza) empini yase-Uhud (625 CE). Ngemuva kweminyaka emithathu kudlule emhlabeni uMprofethi uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye), u-Omar waba yi-khalifa(umholi) yesibili futhi wabusa umbuso wamaSulumane iminyaka eyishumi nanye.

616 - 618 CE

UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) bamuduba

Abaholi baseMeccan baduba uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) nabalandeli bakhe base bebabeka imigoqo kwezenhlalo nakwezomnotho, eyadonsa iminyaka emithathu. Ngalesi sikhathi, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) nabalandeli bakhe bahlupheka kakhulu. Lesi sikhathi kwakuyisivivinyo esinzima sokubekezela kwabo, inkolelo nokuzinikela kwabo eqinisweni.

619 - 620 CE

Unyaka wosizi

Amakhosi aseMecca ahoxise ukuvinjwa kwezenhlalo nezomnotho ngoba babona ukuba akusizi. Ngawo lowo nyaka, unkosikazi kaMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) uKhadijah kanye nomalume wakhe u-Abu-Talib bashona. UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) walahlekelwa ithemba eMakkah futhi wanquma ukudlulisa uMlayezo kaNkulunkulu futhi afune ukusekelwa ngaphandle kweMakkah. Waya edolobheni laseTa'if kodwa wahlangabezwa nobutha (4). Ngaphezu kwalokho, wakhuluma nezizwe zama-Arab ezingaphezu kwamashumi amabili mayelana ne-Islam kodwa akazange athole impendulo enhle.

620 - 622 CE

Ukuthi nhla kwethemba

UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wahlngana nabantu abayisithupha baseYathrib (idolobha elisendaweni engamakhilomitha angama-400 enyakatho neMakkah) ngesikhathi sohambo lokuya ezindaweni ezingcwele futhi wakhuluma nabo nge-Islam. Bamukholelwa uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) futhi babuyela edolobheni labo ngezinhloso zokumema abantu abaningi esizweni sabo nakwezinye izizwe zaseYathrib. Bavumelana ngokuthi bazobuyela eMakkah ngonyaka olandelayo ngesikhathi sohambo olungcwele ukuze bezohlangana futhi noMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) “uMprofethi kanye neSithunywa sikaNkulunkulu”.

AmaSulumane amasha athembisa ukwethembeka kuMuhammad

Iqembu elifanayo labuya ngonyaka olandelayo (ngo-621 CE) selinabantu abayisithupha abengeziwe. Benza isifungo sabo sokwethembeka kuMuhammad (ukumamukela njengesiThunywa sikaNkulunkulu). 

Bamthembisa:

  1. ukungakhonzi muntu ngaphandle kukaAllah
  2. ukungebi
  3. ukungaphingi
  4. Ukungabulali
  5. ukungahlebi ngomakhelwane
  6. Ukungaphikisani nesiThunywa sikaNkulunkulu.

Leli qembu labuyela eYathrib futhi lamema abaholi babo bezizwe nabantu babo ukuba bamukele ubuSulumane. Babuya futhi ngonyaka olandelayo (ngo-622 CE) ngesikhathi sohambo olungcwele nabesilisa abangaphezu kwamashumi ayisikhombisa nabesifazane ababili. Isibambiso esifanayo sokuzinikela sanikwa yileli qembu kuMprofethi Muhammad(ukuthula makube kuye).

Umphakathi omusha wamaSulumane wakheka E-yathrib : Abaholi bezizwe ezimbili eziyinhloko e-Yathrib (Aws & Khazraj) bamukela ubuSulumane futhi ngemuva kwalokho abantu babo baba ngamaSulumane. UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) uMprofethi kaNkulunkulu wamenywa ukuba eze eYathrib azoba umbusi nomholi wayo.

I-Aqaba noma i-Al-Bay'aa “Pledge” Mosque (5)

622 CE

Izinduna zaseMakkah zakha itulo lokubulala uMuhammad; ukufudukela e-Yathrib kuqalile

Izinto zazibheda kakhulu eMakkah. UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wabuza amaSulumane aseMecca (6) ukuthuthela eYathrib. Ngemva kokufuduka kwabo, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wathuthela eYathrib ngoSepthemba 622 CE (7). Ukuthutha kwakhe kwenza inguquko ebaluleke kakhulu emlandweni wamaSulumane. Kusukela e-Yathrib, i-Islam yaqhakaza, kwasungulwa umbuso wamaSulumane futhi kwazalwa ukuhleleka komphakathi okunobulungiswa.

623-624 CE

UMuhammad umbusi waseYathrib

UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye), “isiThunywa sikaNkulunkulu” waba umbusi waseYathrib ngokuthanda nangokuthula ngokuvumelana neningi labantu. Abantu baseYathrib babeyingxube yama-Arab kanye namaJuda. Nakuba kwakunezizwe ezimbili eziyinhloko zama-Arab kanye nezizwe ezintathu ezincane zamaJuda, umphakathi wama-Arab wawumkhulu kunowamaJuda.

UMuhammad washintsha igama leYathrib umphakathi wamasiko amaningi

“IMadinah” igama elisha uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) alinikeza idolobha laseYathrib.

Ngemuva kokuthutha kwamaSulumane aseMeccan, i-Yathrib yayingasekho embusweni weqembu elithile lama-Arabhu, esikhundleni salokho, kwaba yizwe lamakholwa elamukela ubuSulumane.

Njengoba kwakukhona izizwe zamaJuda eYathrib namanye ama-Arabhu ababengayamukeli inkolo yamaSulumane, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) akazange ayibize ngokuthi idolobha lamaSulumane. Esikhundleni salokho, yaqanjwa ngokuthi “i-Al-Madinah” okusho ukuthi “Idolobha”, lapho zonke izakhamuzi zazinamalungelo afanayo okuba yisakhamuzi.

UMuhammad ucele ukuthula nobumbano eMadinah

Enkulumweni yakhe yokuqala ayethule kubantu baseMadinah, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wethula inkulumo emfushane eyayikhuthaza ukuzwana nobumbano emphakathini. Wathi:

“O Bantu, funani futhi nisabalalise ukuthula futhi niphane ngokudla, ninakekele izihlobo zenu futhi nithandaze kuNkulunkulu ebusuku abanye belele ukuze nizo zuza injabulo kaNkulunkulu futhi ningene eZulwini Lakhe”. 

(Ibn Majah, 4331) kanye (Tirmidhi, 5842)

Umprofethi Muhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) waqgqugquzela abantu ukuthi bahloniphane futhi bathandane ukuze bahlale ngokuthula nangokuzwana emphakathini onamasiko amaningi.

623 - 624 CE

UMuhammad wasayina isivumelwano sokuqala namaJuda eMadina esasivikela amalungelo abantu kanye nenkululeko

Iningi lamaJuda lalinethemba lokuthi uMprofethi wokugcina wayeqhamuka emndenini wamaJuda. Yize iningi lamaJuda lingazange limamukele uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) njengeSithunywa sikaNkulunkulu, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) (njengombusi wezwe) wasayina isivumelwano nabo esasifana "noMthethosisekelo kanye noMqulu Wamalungelo Abantu Nenkululeko" lapho zonke izizwe zama-Arabhu namaJuda kwavunyelwana. 

Isivumelwano siqinisekise inkululeko yokukhonza yamaSulumane namaJuda kanye nama-Arabhu angayamukeli i-Islam. Ngaphezu kwalokho, isivumelwano sasivikela ukuphepha nokuvikeleka kwazo zonke izakhamizi zaseMadina futhi sasifuna ukuthi zonke izinhlaka zibe yingxenye yezokuvikela izwe uma iMadinah ihlaselwa yizitha. Isivumelwano sathi ubulungiswa, amalungelo esintu, inkululeko nokuvinjelwa kobugebengu nokuziphatha kabi.

624 CE

Impi engenakugwemeka ye-Badr

 Ngesikhathi amaSulumane esuka eMakkah eya eMadinah, amaningi awo aphoqeleka ukuba ashiye amakhaya awo nezimpahla zawo zathathwa. 

Amakhosi aseMakkah asebenzise imali ethathiwe kwezohwebo nakwezamabhizinisi. AmaSulumane ayazi ngekaravani yokuhweba yamakhosi aseMeccan, eholwa yisitha sawo u-Abu-Sufyan, esasizodlula ngomzila wezohwebo osondele eMadinah.

UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wacela amaSulumane ukuthi athathe le kharavani ngenhloso yokuthola ingcebo yabo eyathathwa eMakkah. Ibutho lamaSulumane awu-313 kuphela enza lo msebenzi. Ubahloli baseMeccan beluleke u-Abu-Sufyan ukuthi ashintshe umzila wenhlangano yokuhweba. Ngaphezu kwalokho, iMakkah yathumela ibutho lamasosha angama-950 ukuyolwa nebutho lamaSulumane, elalingayilungele impi futhi elalingahlomanga lincane kakhulu kunempi yaseMeccan.

Kwakumangalisa futhi kungalindelekile ukuthi amaSulumane anqoba impi yawo yokuqala yokulwa nezinduna zaseMeccan. Amakhosi amaningi aseMeccan nabantu ababalulekile babulawa kule mpi.

625 CE

Amakhosi aseMecca ahlasela uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) nabalandeli bakhe empini yase-Uhud

Ukuziphindiselela ngokulahlekelwa kwabo empini yaseBadr kanye nokwesaba kwabo ukulahlekelwa isikhundla sabo sokuhola e-Arabia, amakhosi aseMeccan namanye ama-Arab ayesondelene nabo, athumela ibutho lamasosha ayizi-3000 ukuba liyohlasela amaSulumane entabeni yase-Uhud enyakatho yeMadina.

AmaSulumane ahlulwa kule mpi futhi uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) walimala kodwa wasinda. Empini yase-Uhud kwabulawa abanye abangaba bakaMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) kuhlanganise nomalume wakhe amthandayo uHamza. 

Indawo yase-Uhud - Madinah - Saudi Arabia
Abafel 'ukholo be-Uhud Battle, amathuna ase-Uhud - Madinah - Saudi Arabia

626 CE

Abantu base Mecca nezinye izizwe bahlasela uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) nabalandeli bakhe empini yasemseleni

Le mpi ibizwa nangokuthi "Impi Ye-bumbano". Njengoba uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) engazange abulawe empini edlule, izinduna zaseMeccan kanye nezinye izizwe zama-Arabhu namaJuda zacela umzamo ohlangene kanye nokuhlaselwa okuphelele kokubulala uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) nokubhubhisa umphakathi wamaSulumane.

Ibutho lamasosha ayizi-10,000 lahamba libheke eMadina. Ngemva kokubonisana nabangane bakhe, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wanquma ukwamukela isiphakamiso seSulumane lasePheresiya okuthiwa uSalman sokumba umsele endleleni esenyakatho yeMadinah (5.5 km ubude X 4.6 m ububanzi).

AmaSulumane ayesesimweni esingesihle neze futhi azama konke okusemandleni ukubandakanya impi yengqondo ukuzivikela. Ngemuva kokuvimbezeleka inyanga yonke ibutho laseMeccan nababambisene nalo baphelelwa yisineke futhi izivunguvungu ezinamandla zavunguza nomoya, okwaphoqa abahlanganyeli ukuthi baqoqe amatende abo bahoxe.

Ngo-627 CE

Isivumelwano sikaHudaybiya, isivumelwano seminyaka eyi-10

Ngonyaka owodwa ngemuva kwempi yomsele, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wathatha isinyathelo esinokuthula sokwenza i-Umrah (vakashela i-Sacred Mosque eMakkah futhi enze namanye amasiko enkolo). Ukuvakashela iMakkah ngenhloso yokukhonza kwakuyilungelo lenkolo ukuthi iMakkah kube eyabo bonke abantu base-Arabia. 

Kwamangaza kakhulu izinduna zaseMeccan ukubona uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) eza eMakkah nezakhamizi eziyi-1400 ezazivela eMadinah.

Ngemuva kwezingxoxo eziningi, kwenziwa isivumelwano phakathi kwamakhosi aseMeccan noMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) iminyaka eyishumi ngesikhathi uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) nabangane bakhe bebuyela emakhaya benombandela wokuphinde bavakashele eMakkah ngonyaka olandelayo (628 CE). Isivumelwano sasinemigomo eyeyidumaza amaSulumane ngoba yayivuna kuhlangothi lweMeccan.

Ngo-629 CE

Ngesikhathi sekuvunyelwene, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wadlulisa uMlayezo kaNkulunkulu ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwe-Arabia 

Isivumelwano sasiyithuba eliyigolide lokuthi uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) akhulume ngokukhululeka nabantu ngamaSulumane ngaphandle kokumiswa noma ukuvinjelwa ngamanye amabutho.

UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wathumela izithunywa kwezinye izizwe zama-Arabhu e-Arabia futhi wabhalela ababusi namakhosi amazwe angomakhelwane namandla amakhulu njengePheresiya, iByzantine neGibhithe ebamema ukuba bamukele ubuSulumane “njengoMyalezo kaNkulunkulu”. AmaSulumane anda ngamanani njengoba abantu bathola iqiniso kumaSulumane.

630 CE

Ukuthatha ngokuthula iMakkah 

Kungakapheli neminyaka emibili, lesi sivumelwano saphulwa ohlangothini lweMeccan lapho ababebambisene nabo bebulala amaSulumane angamashumi amabili.

Ephendula lesi senzo esishaqisayo, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wamasha namaSulumane ayi-10 000 eyonqoba iMakkah kodwa wabuza amasosha akhe ukuthi angalwi namuntu ngaphandle kokuthi alwelwe. (7)

Izinduna zaseMeccan zazinamahloni futhi zazingazimisele ukulwa namaSulumane. Ngenkathi amabutho amaSulumane efika eMakkah, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wakhuluma nabantu bonke baseMakka eqinisekisa ubunye bukaNkulunkulu, ebhekisa ukunqoba kuYe futhi ekhumbuza abantu ukuthi bonke bavela ku-Adam no-Adam badalwa ngothuli lomhlabathi.

Wabe esebuza abantu baseMakkah: “Ningilindele ukuthi ngenzeni kini? Baphendula bathi: “Sithemba okungcono. Angithi ubungumfowethu onomusa nomzala onenhlonipho ”. 

Isibonelo sokuthethelela

Naphezu kobunzima obabangelwa abantu baseMecca phakathi neminyaka engu-21 edlule, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) waziphatha ngokuziphatha okuphezulu. Waphendula:

“Ningesabi namuhla. hambani-ke (emakhaya enu), nikhululekile”.

(Sunan Al-Bayhaqi, 9/118, 18342, 18343)

Inkulumo kaMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) yaba nomthelela omkhulu futhi abantu abaningi beza kuye bezokwenza isifungo futhi bamukele i-Islam.

630 - 631 CE

Izizwe zama-Arabhu zamukela i-Islam

Ngemuva kokuthathwa okunokuthula kweMakkah, izithunywa ezivela kulo lonke elase-Arabia zeza zizofunda nge-Islam. Ngaphandle kwesizwe samaHawazen, esalwa namaSulumane futhi ekugcineni sahlulwa empini yaseHunayn, izizwe eziningi zama-Arabhu zamukela ubuSulumane. UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wathumela abangane bakhe abaningi ezifundazweni ezahlukahlukene e-Arabia ukuyofundisa abantu ubuSulumane “The Message of God”.

Lapho uMprofethi uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) ebuyela eMakkah, umgomo wakhe omkhulu kwakuwukuhlanza iMosque Engcwele. Wadiliza zonke izithixo ezazikhonzwa ama-Arab futhi wabuyisela iKaabah njengeNdlu kaAllah, uNkulunkulu oyedwa.

Ngo-632 CE

Inkulumo yokuvalelisa kaMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye)

Umsebenzi kaMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wafezwa futhi impilo yakhe yayisizophela. Ngonyaka ka-632 CE uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wenza uhambo lwezenkolo futhi wanikeza intshumayelo yakhe yokugcina kubantu abangaphezu kwezi-100,000.

Intshumayelo yakhe yayikhumbuza abantu ngokukholelwa kuNkulunkulu omunye, ubungcwele bempilo, ukuvikelwa kwengcebo nempahla, ukulingana kwazo zonke izinhlanga, imithetho yezobulungiswa, amalungelo abesifazane kanye nokuziphatha.

Ukudlula emhlabeni kukaMuhammad ﷺ

UMprofethi uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) washona emzini wakhe eMadina ngonyaka ka-632 CE eshiya impahla embalwa kuphela. Akazange ashiye imali noma ingcebo kodwa ifa lokukholelwa kuNkulunkulu lisakhanyisa izinhliziyo zezigidi zabantu emhlabeni wonke.

Izintaba eMakkah
Ukubuka okusemoyeni kweSacred Mosque, eMakkah

I-Al-Noor Mount, lapho uMuhammad ethola khona isambulo sokuqala esivela kuNkulunkulu uMakkah
I-Hira Cave e-Al-Noor Mount. UMprofethi uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wayejwayele ukuzindla nokukhulekela uNkulunkulu lapho. Ngezinye izikhathi, wayethanda ukuzindla lapho eyedwa
Umhume waseThawr, lapho uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) nomngane wakhe u-Abu Bakr baphephela khona ubusuku obuthathu ekuqaleni kokuthuthela kwabo eMadina.

Ukubuka okusemoyeni kwedolobha lase-Badr
Indawo lapho ibutho laseMeccan likanisa khona e-Badr
Indawo yase-Battle of Badr, indawo lapho uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) nabangane bakhe bakanisa khona
Izindawo zokuhlala e- Battle of Badr
Ukubuka kwe-panoramic, i-Uhud Mountain
Indawo yempi yase-Uhud Isithombe sibonisa intaba yokucibishela imicibisholo kanye namathuna Abafel' ukholo. Bangaphezu kwamashumi ayisikhombisa abangani bakaMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) kanye nomalume wakhe amthandayo uHamza bangcwatshwe lapho.
Umbono ocatshangwayo wedolobha laseMadina ubonisa indlu yamaSulumane yoMprofethi uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) (iMosque yaseNabawi) ezungezwe izindlu nezihlahla zesundu.
(Igunyazwe ngu: Madinah Research and Studies Center, Saudi Arabia)

Phakathi kwabaprofethi bakaNkulunkulu abaziwayo, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) nguyena kuphela umphrofethi okungcwatshwa kwakhe kukhonjwe ngokunembile futhi
abalandeli bakhe bayaqiniseka ngendawo eqondile yethuna lakhe.

UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wangcwatshwa endlini yakhe, exhunywe kwi-mosque yakhe "Al-Masjid Al- Nabawi" eMadinah. Lesi sithombe sikhombisa uhlangothi lwesakhiwo samaSulumane lapho abantu bengangena khona bezobona ithuna loMprofethi uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) nendlu yakhe evalelwe njengamanje.

Sicela uqaphele ukuthi uMprofethi wangcwatshwa endlini yakhe hhayi mosque. Ngenkathi i-mosque inwetshwa ngu-Al-Waleed Bin Abdul-Malik, indlu yomProfethi yaba yingxenye yesakhiwo esisha se-mosque.

Amanothi Okugcina

  1. Ukulandisa okuningi kuqinisekisile ukuthi uMprofethi uMuhammad wazalwa ngonyaka ofanayo owawubizwa ngokuthi "Unyaka Wendlovu". Lona unyaka lapho u-Abraha asusa ibutho laseYemen ukuyobhubhisa iKaabah. Wasebenzisa izindlovu emkhankasweni wakhe. Sicela wazi ukuthi usuku lokuzalwa koMprofethi uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) aluqinisekisiwe kodwa kuyaziwa ukuthi wazalwa ngoMsombuluko. Ngokwezibalo ezithile, uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wazalwa ngonyaka ka-570 noma ngo-571 CE. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kuyaqinisekiswa ukuthi washona ngomhlaka-12 wenyanga yenyanga kaRabi' Al-Awal, 631 CE.
  2. KuneQuran eyodwa kuphela eyembulelwa uMuhammad ngesi-Arabhu sangempela. Nokho, kunezinguqulo eziningi zezincazelo zamavesi eQuran. Amavesi acashuniwe kulo mhlahlandlela wephakethe we-Quran ethulwe ngesiNgisi esilula ngokusekelwe ekuhunyushweni kwesiNgisi okushiwo kuzikhombo ezikhonjiwe.
  3. Okunye ukulandisa kuthi umshado kaMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) noKhadijah wathatha iminyaka engama-24 nezinyanga ezimbalwa.
  4. UMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) wahlaselwa eTai'f futhi waphathwa kabi kakhulu lapho. Lapho ehamba eTai'f wadumala kakhulu. Ngokokulandisa okuthile, wabiza uNkulunkulu ngokunxusa okumangalisayo
  5. I-Aqaba noma i-Al-Bay'aa Mosque (i-Pledge Mosque): eyasungulwa nguKhalifa u-Abbasside u-Abu Jaafar Al Manssour endaweni efanayo okukholakala ukuthi amaSulumane amasha aseMadina azibophezele kuMprofethi uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) njengoba amukela i-Islam.
  6. Umphakathi omncane wamaMuslim wahlala eMakkah futhi awukwazanga ukufudukela eYathrib (Madinah).
  7. Ikhalenda lamaSulumane liqala kusukela ngosuku uMuhammad(ukuthula makube kuye) asuka ngalo esuka eMakkah waya eMadina (13th Sep 622 CE approx). Ukuthatha iMakkah ngokuthula kwakungomhla ziyisi-8 kuJan 630 CE cishe).

Ukuphambuka kuwubuntu, ukuthethelela kungubuNkulunkulu

Alexander Pope

O Nkosi yami,ngiletha ubuthakathaka bami kuwe, ukungabi namandla kanye nokululazeka.

O Wena Onesihawu kwabanesihawu, UnguMenzi walabo ababonakala bebuthakathaka futhi UnguMenzi wami. Ngizothembela kubani (ngaphandle Kwawe)?

Kumuntu okude ongibheka ngokucasuka noma esitheni (isitha) engizinikele kuso.

Uma nje ungangithukuthelele, anginaso isizathu sokudabuka. Ngiphephela ekukhanyeni kwakho okukhanya ngakho ubumnyama nalapho kulungiswa khona kokubili leli zwe nelilandelayo.

Inhlalakahle onginika yona ingaphezu kwakho konke ukuthi ungathulula intukuthelo Yakho noma ukucasuka kwakho phezu kwami.

Kuwe ngiyoqhubeka ngiphendukela ngize ngizuze umusa Wakho. (4)